The Al-Hajar Mountains at Dibba, Emirates of Fujairah, and the eastern United Arab Emirates are the highest mountains in the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Also known as the “Mountains of Oman”, they divide the coastal plain of Fujairah with the high desert plain and lie about 50-100 km (31-62 mi) inland with the Gulf of Oman. Al means “the”, and Ḥajar (حَجَر) means “stone” or “rock”. Thus al-Ḥajar (اَلْحَجَر) is therefore called “stone” or “rock”.
Orography and Tectonic Setting
The Al Hajar Mountains rise 700 kilometers (430 miles) via the UAE and Fujairah. They are located on the northeast corner of the Arabian Plate, from the Musandam Peninsula to the east coast of Fujairah. It is about 100 km wide (62 mi) wide, with Jabal Shams being the highest peak at 3,009 m (9,872 ft) in the central mountain region.
The geology of Hajar can be divided into four major groups of tectonostratigraphic. The first group is the pre-Permian sub-rocks, a series of clastics columns, carbonates, and evaporites. The second group is the Permian central Late Cretaceous series of continental cabinet shelves, which are inexplicably placed above the basement. The third group is a series of nappes (allochthonous rocks) that are transported from northeast to a southwest horizontally over 300 miles (190 mi). This was a major tectonic event during the late Cretaceous. This process is called obduction, when the Permian goes between the Cretaceous continental slope-rise (shallow to deep-sea) sedimentary rocks and the late Cretaceous oceanic crust (Semail ophiolite) is thrown (captured) over rocks from the first two groups. Finally, the fourth group delayed reaching the Cretaceous to the Miocene low-lying ocean and landfill rocks placed above all three previous groups.
The high altitude is close to two main edges: Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat, which are major opposites. The summit of Saih Hatat contains an eclogite northeast of As Sifah. These rocks are reduced to about 50 miles (50 mi) deep in the fabric, and then removed and returned to the surface. This excavation event created a large number of mega sheaths on Earth, the Wadi Mayh mega sheath kraal. A common theory is that these eclogites were originally the volcanic rocks within the leading boundary of the Arabian Plate. This lead limit was then removed with the NE-dipping draw area. However, some geologists have interpreted that these eclogites are eliminated by SW-dipping extraction.
The driving force that makes up the Hajar is also opposed. Many geologists point to Zagros Collision as the reason for its elevation, as the Musandam Peninsula (currently located in the northwest corner of the mountains) is currently under construction due to this collision. However, Jabal Shams, the highest peak in the central highlands is more than 300 kilometers (190 mi) away. In addition, there is no major earthquake between the central mountains,] indicating that the mountains are currently not crippled, although Zagros collisions. This shows that the heights that created the modern state of the universe occurred in the past, probably before the start of the Zagros collision, with an incomprehensible mechanism.
Oman’s geographical record is extremely important for geologists, and it needs to be maintained.  It contains the most complete ophiolite on Earth, best known for it among geologists. The ophiolite sequence consists of the basalt of the majestic pillow (Geotimes pillow lava), as well as the boundary of the fossil crust-mantle (moho). In general, ophiolites are captured before a continental collision, which severely impairs the formation of real marine bamboo. However, because continental collisions have not occurred in Hajar, Semail ophiolite is still active. Oman also has some of the most well-documented mega-sheath tracks ever discovered, the Wadi Mayh sheath kraal.  In addition, very small exfoliation of eclogite is important. Eclogite is rare in the world, as it is a rock that occurs at high pressures on the inside of the crust or cloth. Geologists can study what happens inside the earth’s crust and the tectonic processes that come from these rocks. There are various mineral resources in Oman that need to be protected. There is a concern in the geological community that with the construction of infrastructure these massive rocks will be mined and excavated.
Flowers and animals
Mountains are rich in plant life compared to most Arabians, including many species. The plants change in height, the mountains are covered with shrubland in the lowlands, they grow rich and become a forest, including wild olives and figs between 3,630 and 8,250 ft (1,110 and 2,510 meters), and then there are still juniper trees. Fruit trees such as pomegranates and apricots are grown in cool valleys and on rocky outcrops with tiny vegetation. The flowers resemble the mountainous regions of nearby Iran, as well as areas along the Red Sea in the Horn of Africa. For example, the Ceratonia oreothauma tree is found here and in Somalia.
Threats and conservation
The Hajar is heavily infested with domestic goats, camels, and donkeys and the area has been cleared of certain urban and mining areas, which has damaged crops and water and removed traditional land ethics. Wildlife is another problem. The Omani government has created the Wadi Sareen Reserve and the Jebel Qahwan-Jebal Sebtah area in Eastern Hajar, to protect the Arabian tahr and mountain ranges. For tourists, there is a mountain highway from the town of Birkat al-Mawz (the road to Nizwa from Muscat) and a footpath passing through Wadi al-Muaydin to the Saqq Plateau.